Metal Building 101
Star Building Systems Glossary of Metal Building Terms
This is a list of commonly used terms and their definitions. This list is not intended to be all inclusive, but rather to provide enough information to familiarize the reader with metal building terminology.
Click here to view PDF version.
A building product that supplements a basic solid panel building such as a door, window, skylight,
(Metallurgy) A metal that will corrode in the presence of moisture and a “noble” metal (See Galvanic Action and Galvanic Series Chart in this Glossary).
A structure designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other
horticultural products. Such structure shall not include habitable or occupiable spaces, spaces in which
agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged; nor shall an agricultural building be a place of
occupancy by the general public.
American Institute of Steel Construction
Association of Iron and Steel Engineers
American Iron and Steel Institute
A corrosion resistant metallic element. Aluminum alloy coated sheet is often used for metal roofing and
Aluminum Coated Steel
Steel coated with aluminum for corrosion resistance.
Anchor Bolt Plan
A plan view drawing showing the diameter, location and projection of all anchor rods for the components of the Metal Building System and may show column reactions (magnitude and direction). The maximum
base plate dimensions may also be shown.
See Anchor Rods.
The term "anchor rod" is used for threaded rods embedded in concrete to anchor structural steel. The term "rod" is intended to clearly indicate that these are threaded rods, not structural bolts, and should be
designed as threaded parts using the material specified in the latest edition of AISC. The embedded end
of the rod may be secured in the concrete by means of a head, threading with a nut on the end, a hook or
other deformation, by welding to reinforcing steel or other means.
With regard to metal and galvanic response, when two metals are connected in an electrolyte, they will
form a galvanic cell, with the higher metal in the galvanic series being the anode. The anodic metal, being
more “active” oxidizes first, thus protecting the cathodic metal from corrosion (see cathodic).
American National Standards Institute
A set of drawings that may include framing plans, elevations and sections through the building for approval of the buyer.
A flashing located at the juncture of the top of the sloped roof and a vertical wall or steeper-sloped roof.
Any panel that has a primary purpose of the aesthetic enhancement of a building or structure.
American Society of Civil Engineers
American Society of Civil Engineers rated steel shape similar to a train track. Placed on top of a runway
beam, it acts as a guide for top running cranes.
Allowable Stress Design.
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
An asphalt-saturated and/or an asphalt-coated felt. (See Felt).
A group of mutually dependent and compatible components or sub-assemblies of components.
American Society for Testing and Materials.
A closure between the two leaves of a double swing or double slide door.
A crane which when activated operates through a pre-set cycle or cycles.
A welding procedure utilizing a machine to make a weld.
Auxiliary Crane Girder
A girder arranged parallel to the main girder for supporting the platform, motor base, operator's cab, control panels, etc., to reduce the torsional forces that such load would otherwise impose on the main crane girder.
A supplemental hoisting unit, usually designed to handle lighter loads at a higher speed than the main
Dynamic live loads such as those induced by cranes and material handling systems.
A force tending to elongate or shorten a member.
back to top
A name commonly used for "Open Web Steel Joists".
A semi-cylindrical shaped roof.
An angle secured to a wall or foundation used to attach the bottom of the wall paneling.
The lower flashing component of a two component metal flashing detail. The component flashing details
are often used either for expedience or to allow differential thermal movement between building elements or accessories. The lower component is the “base” flashing; the upper component is the “counter-flashing”.
A plate attached to the bottom of a column that rests on a foundation or other support, usually secured by
A continuous member imbedded in the edge of the foundation to which the wall panels are attached.
A strip of wood common to non-structural panels that is used to support the vertical ribs of adjacent metal
1. A separate strip of metal used to cover the wood batten, and join the vertical ribs of adjacent metal
panels on either side of the batten.
2. A strip of formed metal used to span the void area and join the vertical legs of adjacent metal panels.
1. A metal panel profile attached to and formed around a wood or metal batten,
2. A metal panel profile that imitates the traditional batten seam system but omits the wooden batten.
The space between the main frames measured normal to the frame.
A member, usually horizontal, that is subjected to bending loads. There are three types, simple,
continuous, and cantilever.
Beam and Column
A structural system consisting of a series of rafter beams supported by columns. Often used as the end
frame of a building.
Bearing End Frame
See "Beam and Column"
See “Bearing Hot Rolled”
Bearing Frame Endwall (BFEW)
See "Beam and Column"
See “Bearing Hot Rolled”
Bearing Hot Rolled
Also referred to as a Bearing End Frame or Bearing Frame Endwall (BFEW). A Bearing Hot Rolled is a
structural system consisting of a series of hot rolled rafter beams supported by hot rolled columns
connected by a series of pinned connections. Often used as the end wall framing of a building.
See “Beam and Column”
A steel plate that is set on the top of a masonry support on which a beam or purlin can rest.
See "Main Frame".
A metal panel featuring a stepped profile. The panel runs perpendicular to the slope of the roof.
Bill of Materials
A list that enumerates by part number or description each piece of material or assembly to be shipped.
Also called tally sheet or shipping list.
Wire mesh used to prevent birds from entering the building through ventilators and louvers.
Blanket (batt) Insulation
A layer or sheet of flexible fiberglass thermal insulation.
A small headed pin with expandable shank for joining light gage metal. Typically used to attach flashing,
Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc.
Girders, trucks or other members of rectangular cross-section enclosed on four sides.
Rods, angles or cables used in the plane of the roof and walls to transfer loads, such as wind, seismic
and crane thrusts to the foundation.
A structural support projecting to a structural member. Examples are canopy brackets, lean-to brackets,
and crane runway brackets.
A machine used to bend, fold or form sheet metal.
That part of an overhead crane consisting of girders, trucks, end ties, walkway and drive mechanism which
carries the trolley and travels in a direction parallel to the runway.
A load lifting system consisting of a hoist that moves laterally on a beam, girder or bridge, which in turn
moves longitudinally on a runway, made of beams and rails.
Bracing or systems of bracing used between structural members.
British Thermal Unit (BTU)
That amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by 1°F.
A party who, as a routine part of his business, buys the Metal Building System from a manufacturer for
the purpose of resale. See “Dealer”
A structure forming an open, partially enclosed, or enclosed space constructed by a planned process of
combining materials, components, and subsystems to meet specific conditions of use.
A space defined by the length of the building and the space between building columns.
Regulations established by a recognized agency describing design loads, procedures and construction
details for structures usually applying to a designated political jurisdiction (city, county, state, etc.).
The elements of a building that enclose conditioned spaces through which thermal energy is capable of
There are two types of Buildings "Stand Alone" buildings and "Attachment" buildings. Stand Alone
A Stand Alone building is any building in a project that does not attach to any other building in the same
project. The first building entered in a new project is always a Stand Alone building because there are no
other building to which it could attach. A Stand Alone building can be added to the project and located so
that it does not interfere with other buildings in the project. Attachment An Attachment is a building which will attach to any other building in the project. An attachment can be a Lean-to, single slope or gabled building. Attachments can be made Endwall-to-Endwall, Sidewall-to-Sidewall, Endwall-to-Sidewall or Sidewall-to-Endwall. The frames of an attachment that is a lean-to must line up with the columns lines of the building to which it attaches. Any other building type can attach to another building anywhere along the wall to which it attaches.
A roof covering made up of alternating layers of tar and asphaltic materials or layers (plies) of organic or
A structural member, usually an I-shaped section, made from individual flat plates welded together.
An energy-absorbing device for reducing impact when a moving crane or trolley reaches the end of its
permitted travel; or when two moving cranes or trolleys come into contact.
The end plate of a structural member usually used to rest against a like plate of another member in
forming a connection. Sometimes called a splice plate or bolted end plate.
A process of indenting two or more sheets of metal that are pressed against each other to prevent
slippage between the metal.
A common abbreviation for polyisobutylene-isoprene polymer sealant tape used between metal roof panel and flashing joints.
See "Exterior Framed".
back to top
A member formed from steel sheet in the shape of a block "C", that may be used either singularly or back
A crane controlled by an operator in a cab supported on the bridge or trolley.
Curvature of a flexural member in the plane of its web before loading.
A projecting roof system that is supported and restrained at one end only.
A beam supported only at one end having a free end and a fixed end.
A plate located at the top of a column or end of a beam for capping the exposed end of the member.
The maximum load (usually stated in tons) that a crane is designed to support.
That action which causes movement of liquids when in contact with two adjacent surfaces such as panel
With regard to metal and galvanic response, cathodic metals are lower (and more noble) in the galvanic
series. (May be protected from oxidation by more anodic metals). (See “Anodic”).
Filling the joints, seams or voids between adjacent units with a sealant in order to make them
Centerline to Centerline of Runway Beams
The span of a crane system. Also referred to as Centerline to Centerline of Rail
Channel, Hot Rolled
A C-shaped member formed while in a semi-molten state at the steel mill to a shape having standard
dimensions and properties.
The exterior metal roof and wall paneling of a Metal Building System. See also "Components and
A sheet metal strip used in concealed fashion to secure panels or flashing that permits some limited
degree of thermal response.
A plate or angle used to fasten two or more members together.
A resilient strip, formed to the contour of ribbed panels and used to close openings created by ribbed
panels joining other components.
Crane Manufacturers of America Association, Inc. An independent trade association in the United States.
It is affiliated with the United States Division of Material Handling Industry. It is a voluntary association to help promote the standardization of cranes as well as uniform quality and performance.
Cool Metal Roofing Coalition.
The application of a finish to a coil of metal sheet using a continuous mechanical coating process.
The process of using press brakes or rolling mills to shape steel into desired cross sections at room
The process of forming sheet steel into desired shapes on a series of rollers at ambient room
The weight of additional permanent materials required by the contract, other than the Building System,
such as sprinklers, mechanical and electrical systems, partitions and ceilings.
A main member used in a vertical position on a building to transfer loads from main roof beams, trusses,
or rafters to the foundation.
A part used in a Metal Building System. See also "Components and Cladding".
Components and Cladding
For wind load considerations, members that do not qualify as part of a Main Wind Force Resisting
System. They include girts, joists, purlins, studs, wall and roof panels, fasteners, end wall columns and
end wall rafters of bearing end frames, roof overhang beams, canopy beams, and masonry walls when
acting as other than shear walls.
A hold down clip used with a wall or roof panel system to connect the panel to the supporting structure
without exposing the fasteners on the exterior surface.
1. Cooled space: an enclosed space within a building that is cooled by a cooling system whose sensible
output capacity is greater than or equal to 5 Btu/h·ft of floor area.
2. Heated space: an enclosed space within a building that is heated by a heating system whose output
capacity is greater than or equal to 5 Btu/h·ft of floor area.
3. Semi-heated space: an enclosed space within a building that is heated by a heating system whose
output capacity is greater than or equal to 3.4 Btu/h·ft of floor area but is not a conditioned space.
The transfer of heat through a material or construction.
A transition component between a through-wall scupper and downspout used to collect and direct run-off
The means of attachment of one structural member to another.
The terminology given to a structural system denoting the transfer of loads and stresses from member to
member as if there were no connections.
A beam of variable geometry passing over two supports with overhang on one end or passing over three
The Documents that define the material and work to be provided by a Contractor or the General Contractor for a Construction Project.
The heating of the air that passes over a hot surface.
Cool Roof Color
The color coating on or self color of the roofing material that gives it a high solar reflectance and a high
Cooling Degree Day (CDD)
The difference in temperature between the outdoor mean temperature over a 24-hour period and a given
base temperature. For example, using a base temperature of 65° F a day with 85° F mean temperature
has 20 CDD (85-65=20). The annual Cooling Degree Days are the sum of the degree days over a calendar year.
A sheet metal flashing, cut or formed to the contour of ribbed panels and used to close openings created
by ribbed panels joining other components.
The covering piece on top of an exposed wall or parapet usually made of metal, masonry or stone. It is
often sloped to shed water back onto the roof.
A natural weathering metal used in architectural metal roofing; typically used in 16 or 20 oz. per square
foot thickness (4.87 or 6.10 kg/square meter)
A decorative finish or flashing that accents the top of a wall, or the juncture of a roof and wall.
Formed metal or elastomeric flashing secured on or into a wall, curb, pipe, rooftop unit, or other surface, to cover and protect the upper edge of the base flashing and its associated fasteners from exposure to the
A machine designed to move material by means of a hoist.
This is the section of the building serviced by the crane. The aisle length can run the length of the building
(perpendicular to frames) or it can run across (parallel to frames). The width of the aisle is based on the
width of the crane bridge unless it is a monorail and then it is simply a line.
Crane Manufacturers of America Association (CMAA) has established six categories of crane service
classification as a guide for determining the service requirements of a specific crane application. For more
information about Crane Service Classifications, see the MBMA handbook section II, subsection 2.9.1
Class A (Standby or infrequent use) This service class covers cranes used in installations such
as powerhouses, public utilities, turbine rooms, motor rooms and transformer stations where
precise handling of equipment at slow speeds with long, idle periods between lifts are required.
Capacity loads are handled for initial installation of equipment and for infrequent maintenance.
Class B (Light Service) This service class covers cranes used in repair shops, light assembly
operations, service buildings, light warehousing, etc. where service requirements are light and the
speed is slow. Loads vary from no load to occasional full rated loads with two to five lifts per hour,
averaging 10 feet per lift.
Class C (Moderate Service) This service class covers cranes used in machine shops or paper
mill machine rooms, etc. where service requirements are moderate. In this type of service, the
crane handles loads that average 50 percent of the rated capacity with five to ten lifts per hour,
averaging 15 feet, not over 50 percent of the lifts at rated capacity.
Class D (Heavy service) This service class covers cranes used in heavy machine shops,
foundries, fabricating plants, steel warehouses, container yards, lumber mills, etc., and the
standard duty bucket and magnet operations where heavy duty production is required. In this type
of service, loads approaching 50 percent of the rated capacity are handled constantly during the
working period. High speeds are used for this type of service with 10 to 20 lifts per hour averaging
15 feet, not over 65 percent of the lifts at rated capacity.
Class E (Severe service) (Mill Duty) This type of service requires a crane capable of handling
loads approaching a rated capacity throughout its life. Applications may include magnet, bucket,
magnet/bucket combination cranes for scrap yards, cement mills, lumber mills, fertilizer plants,
container handling, etc., with twenty or more lifts per hour at or near the rated capacity.
Class F (Continuous severe service) (Mill Duty) This type of service requires a crane capable
of handling loads approaching rated capacity continuously under severe service conditions
throughout its life. Applications may include custom designed specialty cranes essential to
performing the critical work tasks affecting the total production facility. These cranes must provide
the highest reliability with special attention to ease of maintenance features.
Crane Control Type
The method by which the crane is controlled.
The principal horizontal beams of the crane bridge which supports the trolley and is supported by the end
A track supporting and guiding the wheels of a bridge crane or trolley system. On underhung cranes, the
crane rail also acts as the runway beam.
Crane Runway Beam
The member that supports a crane rail and is supported by columns or rafters depending on the type of
crane system. On underhung bridge cranes, the runway beam also acts as the crane rail.
The horizontal distance center-to-center of runway beams.
A device to limit travel of a trolley or crane bridge. This device normally is attached to a fixed structure and normally does not have energy-absorbing ability.
Crane Support Column
A column that sets under the runway beam and next to frame column with bracing to frame column for
Crane System Type
1. Top Running (TRE) (Top Running Electric)
2. Underhung (UHE) (Underhung Electric) - Typically crane capacities up to about 15 tons
3. Monorail - Typically crane capacities up to about 10 tons
Cool Roof Rating Council.
A raised edge on a concrete floor slab.
An element used to raise a wall, flashing or accessory item above the drainage plane of a roof.
Perimeter wall panels that carry only their own weight and wind load.
back to top
A baffle used to open or close the throat of ventilators.
The weight of the Building System construction consisting of members such as framing and covering.
A flat structural element that is fastened to the roof framing members, typically corrugated metal sheets or
plywood. It acts as the substrate for non-structural roof panels.
The displacement of a structural member relative to its supports due to applied loads. Deflection should
not be confused with "Drift".
The loads expressly specified in the contract documents that the Metal Building System is designed to
The Architect or Engineer responsible for the design of a Construction Project.
Dew Point Temperature
The temperature at which water vapor condenses in cooling air at the existing atmospheric pressure and
vapor content. Cooling air below the dew point will cause condensation.
The resistance to racking generally offered by the panels, fasteners, and members to which they are
Direct Tension Indicator
See "Load Indicating Washer".
An angle or channel used to stabilize or keep plumb a sliding or rolling door during its operation.
Double Lock Standing Seam
A standing seam in which the female component of the seam is wrapped and folded approximately 360
degrees around the male seam component. (The male component is interlocked and usually folded 180
degrees). See “Standing Seam”.
A vertical conduit used to carry runoff water from a scupper, conductor head or gutter of a building to a
lower roof level, or to the ground or storm water runoff system.
Horizontal displacement at the top of a vertical element due to lateral loads. Drift should not be confused
The snow accumulation at a height discontinuity.
A tapered pin used during erection to align holes in steel members to be connected by bolting.
A metal flashing, with an outward projecting lower edge, intended to control the direction of dripping water
and to protect underlying building components.
back to top
The line that is usually parallel to the ridge line formed by the intersection of the planes of the roof and
The vertical dimension from finished floor to the eave.
A structural member located at the eave of a building that supports roof and wall paneling and may act as
a strut to transfer bracing loads to frames.
The surface area of a building at the edges of the roof and at the wall intersections where the wind loads
on components and cladding are greater than at other areas of the building.
The practice of providing regularly spaced or continuous openings along a roof edge or perimeter, used as part of a ventilation system to dissipate heat and water vapor.
Effective Wind Area
The area used to determine the wind coefficient. The effective wind area may be greater than or equal to
the tributary area.
A design concept utilizing the proportional behavior of materials when all stresses are limited to specified
allowable values in the elastic range.
Electric Operated Crane
A crane in which the bridge, hoist or trolley is operated by electric power.
Electric Overhead Traveling Crane
An electrically-operated machine for lifting, lowering and transporting loads, consisting of a movable bridge carrying a fixed or movable hoisting mechanism and traveling on an overhead runway structure.
The minimum horizontal distance, parallel to the runway, between the outermost extremities of the crane
and the centerline of the hook.
The bays adjacent to the endwalls of a building. Usually the distance from the endwall to the first interior
main frame measured normal to the endwall.
A frame located at the endwall of a building that supports the loads from a portion of the end bay.
See "End Wall Column".
Bumpers or wheel stops attached to the end of the crane runway to prevent the crane from driving off the
end of the runway. These are provided by the rail vendor only.
The unit consisting of truck frame, wheels, bearings, axles, etc., which supports the bridge girder(s) and
allows movement along the length of the runway structure.
The surface area of a building along the roof at the endwall and at the corners of walls
An exterior wall that is parallel to the interior main frame of the building.
A vertical member located at the endwall of a building that supports the girts. In beam and column end
frames, endwall columns also support the beam. Also referred to as a “Wind Column”
The projection of the roof beyond the plane of the endwall.
Refers to the type of framing that is used at and endwall.
The total estimated annual cost for purchased energy for the building, including any demand charges, fuel
adjustment factors and delivery charges applicable to the building.
Engineer/Architect of Record
The engineer or architect who is responsible for the overall design of the building project. The
manufacturer’s engineer is typically not the Engineer of Record.
EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer)
A Synthetic thermoset rubber that is popular for membrane roofing and flashings, and as gasketing
material for the head of weather sealing screw fasteners.
The on-site assembling of fabricated Metal Building System components to form a completed structure.
Materials used by erectors to stabilize the building system during erection.
Roof and wall erection (framing) drawings that identify individual components and accessories furnished by the manufacturer in sufficient detail to permit proper erection of the Metal Building System.
A party who assembles or erects a Metal Building System.
A cleat designed to accommodate thermal movement of the metal roof panels.
A break or space in construction to allow for thermal expansion and contraction of the materials used in
A wall framing system where the girts are mounted on the outside of the columns.
back to top
The manufacturing process performed in a plant to convert raw material into finished Metal Building
System components. The main operations are cold forming, cutting, punching, welding, cleaning and
An architectural treatment, partially covering a wall, usually concealing the eave and/or the rake of the
Any loss of initial color intensity.
A decorative trim or panel projecting from the face of a wall.
A flexible sheet manufactured by the interlocking of fibers through a combination of mechanical work,
moisture and heat. Roofing felts may be manufactured principally from wood pulp and vegetable fibers
(organic felts), asbestos fibers (asbestos felts), glass fibers (fiberglass felts or plysheet), or polyester
A small metal sleeve placed inside a gutter at the top. In residential applications, a spike is nailed
through the gutter into the fascia board to hold the gutter in place. The ferrule acts as a spacer in the
gutter to maintain its original shape.
1. The uninterrupted principle area of a roof, exclusive of edges, accessory and other flashing areas.
2. The “job site” or “building site”.
3. General marketing area.
See "Closure Strip".
Film Laminated Coil
Coil metal that has a corrosion resistant film laminated to it prior to the forming operation.
A standing seam roof system hold down clip that does not allow the roof panel to move independently of
the roof substructure.
A column base that is designed to resist rotation as well as horizontal or vertical movement.
The projecting edge of a structural member.
A member used to provide lateral support to the flange of a structural member.
A counterflashing used to cover and/or seal the top of a pipe flashing or other small base flashing at
penetrations through the roof.
See "Sliding Clip".
Floor Live Load
Those loads induced on the floor system by the use and occupancy of the building.
A wall framing system where the outside flange of the girts and the columns are flush.
A pad or mat, usually of concrete, located under a column, wall or other structural member, that is used to
distribute the loads from that member into the supporting soil.
The substructure that supports a building or other structure.
Framing members and flashing that surround an opening.
See "Erection Drawings".
back to top
A typical coating weight for galvanized metal sheet. Equates to 0.90 oz. (26g) of zinc per square foot,
measured in both front and back surfaces. Other coating weights are G30 and G60.
The triangular portion of the endwall from the level of the eave to the ridge of the roof.
See "End Wall Overhang".
A roof consisting of two sloping sides that form a ridge and a gable at each end.
The distance between adjacent lines of fasteners along which pitch is measured, or the distance from the
back of an angle or other shape to the first line of fasteners.
A proprietary trade name for a coating, used over sheet steel, that is composed of an aluminum-zinc alloy
for corrosion protection.
An electrochemical reaction between dissimilar metals in the presence of an electrolyte.
304 Stainless Steel (passive)
316 Stainless Steel (passive)
Steel coated with zinc for corrosion resistance.
A crane similar to a top running crane except one side of the bridge is supported by one or more gantry
legs that ride on a rail attached to the floor, while the other side’s end truck rides on a runway beam.
The thickness of sheet metal.
A main horizontal or near horizontal structural member that supports vertical loads. It may consist of
A horizontal structural member that is attached to sidewall or endwall columns and supports paneling.
The reflection of sunlight that can impair vision and create an annoyance. Glare of a coated surface is
controlled by the sheen. Low Sheen = Low Glare.
The process of installing glass in windows and doors.
Glass panes or paneling used in windows and doors.
The term used when referring to the ground elevation around a building.
A concrete beam around the perimeter of a building.
Ground Snow Load
The probable weight of snow on the ground for a specified recurrence interval exclusive of drifts or sliding snow.
A mixture of cement, sand and water used to fill cracks and cavities. Sometimes used under base plates
or leveling plates to obtain uniform bearing surfaces.
A steel plate used to reinforce or connect structural elements.
A light gauge metal member at an eave, valley or parapet designed to carry water from the roof to
downspouts or drains.
back to top
A steel member with a cross section in the shape of an "H".
"V" shaped reinforcing steel used to transfer shear in the anchor rods to the concrete floor mass.
A crane in which the bridge, hoist, or trolley is operated by the manual use of chain and gear without
The deepened portion of a column or rafter designed to accommodate the higher bending moments at
such points. (Usually occurs at the intersection of column and rafter.)
A diagonal member from the intersection of the column and rafter section of the rigid frame to the eave
member to prevent lateral buckling of the haunch.
The horizontal framing member located at the top of a framed opening.
Heating Degree Day (HDD)
The difference in temperature between the outdoor mean temperature over a 24-hour period and a given
base temperature. For example, using a base temperature of 65° F a day with 50° F mean temperature
has 15 HDD (65-50=15). The annual Heating Degree Days are the sum of the degree days over a calendar year.
The edge created by folding metal back on itself.
High Strength Bolts
Any bolt made from steel having a tensile strength in excess of 100,000 pounds per square inch.
High Strength Steel
Structural steel having a yield stress in excess of 36,000 pounds per square inch.
See "Pinned Base".
The line formed at the intersection of two adjacent sloping planes of a roof.
A roof that is formed by sloping planes from all four sides.
A mechanical lifting device usually attached to a trolley that travels along a bridge, monorail or jib crane.
May be chain or electric operated.
Horizontal Guide Rollers
Wheels mounted near the ends of end trucks that roll on the side of the rail to restrict lateral movement of
Steel sections (angles, channels, S-shapes, W-shapes, etc.) which are formed by rolling mills while the
steel is in a semi-molten state.
Metal panel systems that are designed to “shed water” are referred to as hydrokinetic. Hydrokinetic roof
details are typically devoid of sealant and rely on water to freely shed over the joints. Hydrokinetic roof
details are not to be used on roof slopes below 3:12.
Metal panel systems that are designed to withstand being submersed in water for a period of time are
called hydrostatic panels. Hydrostatic roof details rely on sealant to keep water from infiltrating the joints
and seams. Hydrostatic roof details can be used at almost any roof slope (1/4:12 minimum).
back to top
See "S" Shape.
International Building Code.
International Conference of Building Officials.
A buildup of ice that forms a dam on the roof covering along the eave of the building.
International Energy Conservation Code.
A dynamic load resulting from the motion of machinery, elevators, craneways, vehicles, and other similar
moving forces. See Auxiliary Loads.
A power tool used to tighten nuts on bolts.
A factor that accounts for the degree of hazard to human life and damage to property.
Wire mesh used to prevent insects from entering the building through ventilators, louvers, or other
Any material used in building construction to reduce heat transfer.
Pressure inside a building caused by wind acting on the building porosity.